It’s widely reported now that Britain “stood alone” at the beginning World War 2, especially after the Battle at Dunkirk. However this is not strictly true (for a short while after the fall of Dunkirk, it may have felt like it, but it was not the case) very quickly coming to aid Britain “in her hour of need” and reinforce her troops, airman and seamen were the armed forces of the British Commonwealth – and not only the armed forces but also the raw materials and industry of the likes of Australia, India, South Africa and Canada – an all in effort to aid the United Kingdom, push back the advances of Fascist and Nazi thinking and change the course of European history.
It’s generally misunderstood – but within a day of the United Kingdom and France declaring war on Germany on 3 September 1939, New Zealand, Rhodesia and Australia had declared war on Germany as well. It was just 3 short days later that an independent parliament in South Africa declared war on Germany on the 6th September 1939 (very early on if you think about it – the sixth country to declare war on Nazism). Quickly followed by Canada’s independent parliament who just four days after South Africa’s declaration also declared war on Germany – 10th September 1939.
On the eve of World War II the Union of South Africa found itself in a unique political and military quandary. Though closely allied with Great Britain as a co-equal Dominion under the 1931 Statute of Westminster with the British king as its head of state, South Africa had as its Prime Minister on 1 September 1939 Barry Hertzog, the leader of the pro-Afrikaner anti-British National party that had joined in a unity government as the United Party.
Herzog faced a problem: South Africa had a constitutional obligation to support Great Britain against Nazi Germany. The Polish-British Common Defence Pact obligated Britain, and in turn its dominions, to help Poland if attacked by the Nazis.
After Hitler’s forces attacked Poland on the night of 31 August 1939, Britain declared war on Germany (3 September). A short but furious debate unfolded in South Africa, especially in the halls of power in the Parliament of South Africa, that pitted those who sought to enter the war on Britain’s side led by the pro-Allied, Afrikaner, ex-Boer War General, and former Prime Minister Jan Smuts, against then-current Prime Minister Barry Hertzog, who wished to keep South Africa “neutral”, if not even pro Nazi Germany in the hopes Germany would win (as Germany had sided with the Boer Republics during the Boer war there was a groundswell in the Afrikaner right politics in support of Nazi Germany).
On 4 September 1939, Hertzog’s motion to remain out of the war was defeated in Parliament by a vote of 80 to 67, he resigned, and Smuts became Prime Minister of South Africa and declared South Africa officially at war with Nazi Germany and the Axis.
To celebrate Smut’s victory in Parliament that day a special button/lapel badge was made inscribed with 4-9-1939 for the party faithful.
Smuts immediately set about fortifying South Africa against any possible German sea invasion because of South Africa’s global strategic importance controlling the long sea route around the Cape of Good Hope.
A very interesting part of the sequences of declarations of war against Germany, was that of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), and it stands out as a unique one. The Southern Rhodesian government almost immediately followed the British declaration of war with their own. They can even be said to hold the mantle as the very first of the British Dominions and Colonies to stand by Britain in their hour of need. Steadfast and swift in support of their ‘motherland’ – The United Kingdom, no quibble about it either, as there was no long parliamentary debate over the issue – it came without even a second thought on the matter. In all 26 000 Rhodesians volunteered to fight during World War 2.
The irony is that when Rhodesia ‘stood alone’ in an armed onslaught in the 60’s the country to abandon them was in fact the United Kingdom, forcing them to declare unilateral independence of Britain. A fact not missed on the rather cynical ‘old Rhodesians’ today who remember their WW2 sacrifices with a very real sense of treachery, and it’s a fact missed on the British public today.
Today, some South Africans often point to Britain ‘abandoning’ South Africa when its armed insurrection started in the mid 1960’s as well. However they are quick to forget that the very ‘anti-British’ National Party took South Africa out of the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1961 and strained all ties. South Africa ‘stood alone’ on the Nationalists policy of Apartheid and there was nothing the British could really do about it. However to the Rhodesians there is deep cause for unhappiness as they never wanted to abandon any of their British ties whatsoever.
In terms of the semantics of the ‘term ‘standing alone’ after Dunkirk, in many cases the Commonwealth countries did not have immediate operational readiness to come alongside the UK in the summer of 1940. However we must remember that the Battle of Britain (when Britain really ‘stood alone’) was an air battle, where a ‘few’ pilots held off the German assault – and alongside the 2353 British pilots stood 574 pilots from other countries – 24%, – a quarter of the combat force. Most of them came from the Commonwealth countries (342 pilots in total including Rhodesians and South Africans). So Britain never really ‘stood alone’ in that context either.
So, in conclusion, the idea that following Dunkirk, Britain stood alone against a tidal Nazi onslaught is quite incorrect. However due to changing geo-politics, what is dissapointing now is that memory of the sacrifice of men and women from countries like India, Kenya, South Africa and Rhodesia are fading fast in the general populations – in their own countries and in the United Kingdom.
Written and researched by Peter Dickens
Source – wikipedia and Encyclopaedia Britannica
Fourth photo of the montage is of (I think WOII Jock Kirby Australian infantry) – Vietnam war era – if you’re going to fact check, you need to back it with legitimate evidence, not just a few photos scratched together.
Google is your friend buddy. Every single reference points to that poster as a AIF WW2 Poster – no random ‘scratch’ together rest assured. If you have anything to the contrary let me have it and I’ll happily change it. http://www.wikiwand.com/en/Military_history_of_Australia_during_World_War_II
I’m still not convinced. If you, likewise, google “WOII Jack Kirby” you’ll see why I’m sure the photo is of him. I have books to see if I can find that same photo… however… you might be right because…
I have to thank you for bouncing me – I was sure the hat was post WWII, however ” Along with slouch hats, giggle hats were issued as the standard uniform of Australian troops fighting in Southeast Asia during the Second World War. The design apparently originated from an earlier British uniform intended for fighting in hot and humid conditions. They were nicknamed “giggle hats” (as well as “hat ridiculous-for-the-use-of”) by the Australian troops due to their appearance.”
Further digging – I’m going to apologise Peter. I can’t identify the weapon, and now realise the hat was possibly WWII vintage.
The tone of the photo does have a vietnam tone about it.
I’ll give that to you Gordon, the tone of the image is very much in line with the 1960 lifestyle illustrations used so extensively by Pepsi and other commercial concerns. I tried to hunt out the ‘Come on’ campaign, which used the same soldier just standing in front of the respective flag, I could find it for Canada and South Africa but for Australia – pity, this was the best poster I could find which suited the narrative.
Hi Gordon, I’m not 100% sure, but the weapon in the poster certainly appears to be a Lee Enfield .303 rifle, of which several marks were used during the course of the war. That would definitely place it in the WW II era – hopefully that assures you that Peter got it right.
Great website and well researched articles you have here Peter. I particularly enjoy the period recruitment posters and propaganda posters.
What interesting times they must have been to live through.
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Mabe this as nothing to do with your posts but I feel like expressing my thoughts out to you. I think that with the way things are going in South Africa that it’s time for us whites as a minority to be involved in another war. A war to take the country back from this criminal race what do you think. Let’s make a topic of this conversation thanks
I think whites invaded South Africa. If you don’t like sharing it with first nations people you should take your racist views and piss off.
Just replying to this, C Andrade – if you want to make a conversation of it and wish ‘whites’ to ‘take back the land’ – then yes, you’ll bring in the ‘original’ or ‘First People’ debate – who occupied Southern Africa at the time of Christ and the whole ‘whose land is it anyway’ debate – who invaded it first Bantu or European – by land bridge or sea bridge – both these debates are highly politically charged and therefore outside the ambit of a website trying to educate and preserve history. GB’s response is typically aggrieved and rightly so – do we wish this debate on an article on whether Britain stood alone at the commencement of WW2? I would urge we leave it there, this really is not the forum.
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